The last stage 4. When the design is completed, the project is sent to production. For light PCBs, you can do with a minimum of tests. But if we are talking about, for example, HDI PCBs or flexible-rigid multilayer structures, it is better to conduct additional checks. After all, the sooner design errors are noticed, the easier it will be to correct them.
For example, for impedance-controlled or high-speed PCBs, tests are carried out before start to check the integrity of the signal and to measure losses. Sometimes it turns out that it was necessary to design not through vias for this project, but blind holes. This cannot be corrected and it is necessary to use reverse drilling.
The problem that often arises at this stage and should be solved immediately is heat dissipation. For devices with complex prefabricated cases, it is important to check the possibility of assembling into a single case before sending it to production, since it happens that the parts do not fit together.
Such modeling is an additional cost. But the more tests are performed, the better and more elaborate the result is.
Saifon Technologies spares no energy at this stage. If you want printed circuit boards with a quality guarantee, you can order them from us.