Analysis of potential causes. The longest step that may require brainstorming the entire team and analyzing all possible cause-and-effect relationships. The team collects all possible reasons, writes them down and checks each "theory". For example, the reason for excessive application of a solder mask could be system failures. Roughly speaking, a program bug that made the device perform a wrong action. If this is the reason, the software is configured anew, tested and launched for further work. If the reason is different, other theories of the defect are checked.
Let's take as an example a situation where the cause was identified correctly and it is the software. Why did the failure happen? Probable answer: incorrect hardware setting. Why was it set up incorrectly? The person in charge was on sick leave and was replaced by another person. Why did the replacement person fail? He was not trained to set up this type of equipment specifically. Such questions allow to find out the main problem, which in this example is the poor organization of the equipment setup. It is unacceptable to make one person responsible for the whole production process.
So, in the report we recommend a preventive action to solve the problem, for example, "to train related specialists to work with all types of equipment" or "to hire a freelance expert who can replace people required for production in case of their vacations." It is important that the report clearly shows why the solution chosen by the 8D team is effective.
In practice, everything is not always so obvious. You and the team need to check all the recorded solutions to find the only correct option.