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Electronics news

Mandatory points when designing multilayer PCBs

The life and functionality of electrical devices depend on printed circuit boards (PCBs). Before you can reap the full benefits of multilayer PCBs, you need to understand the principles of PCB design.

- Layers are stacked based on several factors: number of layers, signal integrity, layer symmetry, power plane, and ground plane.
- Thermal management. Use of various thermal management techniques: thermal passes, inclusion of copper layers, heat sinks, precise placement of heat-generating components, etc.
- Signal integrity and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Signal integrity is very difficult to ensure due to crosstalk, reflections, and signal degradation between densely packed traces. Impedance controlled routing techniques are used to minimize the problems.
- Component placement and routing. Effective routing involves creating well-established paths for signal traces, grounding, and power distribution.
- Environmentally friendly materials - minimizing the use of hazardous substances such as flame retardants, lead, and so on. In addition, boards should be designed for operating conditions, temperature ranges, and environmental exposure.

Designing multilayer PCBs requires in-depth knowledge of all these aspects, from layer layout to signal integrity and thermal management. They affect the functionality, manufacturability and reliability of PCBs.